Definitions of Attitude and Characteristics


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Definitions of Attitude and Characteristics

The review of related literature is vital because it provide the background to and justification for the research undertaken so, this chapter, outlines a review of related literature to go looking theoretical background for this study. This chapter consisted of two parts. In first part , literature relevant to students’ attitude like definitions of attitude and characteristics, categories, components, factors that affect attitude, and also the attitude towards biology  going to be discussed. within the second part of the chapter, literature relevant to students’ beliefs like definition of beliefs, its importance, categories and also the beliefs towards bilgy  going to be discussed. Part I: Attitude Definition of attitude.

Faizo and Zanna (1981) defined attitudes as: “evaluating feeling that’s evoked by a given object”(p.161). More recently, Nasr and Soltani (2011) defined the term attitude as: “Attitude could be a concept that defines emotional trends in response t affairs, persons, locations, events or ideas” (p.100). Attitudes towards science, which has been a topic of many studies within the recent years,  defined as a mix of sense, beliefs and values towards an object  a product of science , science class or a control on science, public and scientist (Osborne, 2003, p. 100). Characteristics of attitude Attitudes have always been the foremost fascinating subject of study for sociologist and social psychologist, and there’s no dearth of literature on its diverse facets.

Vital topic of the study of science educators

The study of attitude has been a vital topic of the study of science educators moreover. As stated by Osborne, Simon, and Collins (2003), people have different attitude towards objects/events/phenomenon. Students even have different attitudes about different subjects. These attitudes the results of their everyday experiences within the sch;l, homes and community. So, it is said that children don’t inherit attitudes rather they learn through their everyday happenings or learning experiences. As Mohsin (1990) said, Attitudes aren’t inborn; they’re learnt through experiences.

Attitudes aren’t imaginary concepts they really exist as Mohsin (1990) said, Attitude have objective reference: one to his an attitude regarding some objects, persons or issue. Attitudes have a good scope. they might be positive or negative. they might be in favor of any object or an incident or may well be against it. As, Mohsin (1990) said, Attitude differs in valence; attitudes are positive, or negative, pro or anti. Attitudes don’t change without delay.

They exist for a period of your time until or unless there are some extra ordinary conditions in favor or against the event/object. As, Mohsin (1990) said, once formed, attitudes continue tune; they’re enduring depositions and are unlikely to vary under ordinary conditions. Categories of Attitudes There are following categories of attitudes which affect the scholar learning:

Categories of Attitudes

  1. Interest
  2. Difficulty
  3. Importance Interest Students which show interest towards biology have positive attitude.

They take interest in biology, they relate the biology with universe, and that they can apply the biological application in standard of living. they’ll solve the matter easily which expounded to biology. Students who don’t show interest in biology their attitude towards biology  negative. they continue to be unaware biological importance. they  doing not perform better as compare to others.

Difficulty Students who don’t take interest in biology, they feel biology is difficult for them. they can not perform best because their concepts aren’t clear towards biology and their attitude is negative towards biology. Teacher should relate the concept of biology to the prior knowledge and everyday life experiences in order that difficulty

The concept of student

By clearing the concept of student we modify the attitude of scholars towards biology. Importance Biology is incredibly important for us. process  extremely interesting for those students who show positive attitude towards biology. Biology consists of the many important phenomena relative to life. We will tell the importance of biology to the coed so student show more interest towards biology and their attitude become more positive towards biology.

Components of attitudes In this study by attitude the researcher means a general and enduring positive or negative feeling of grade 10th students towards the topic of biology. These terms will be supported within the three component model of the attitude. These three components include: cognitive, affective and behavioral or action components.


Cognitive Component

A cognitive component consists of ideas and beliefs, which attitudes holder has about attitude object. Affective component refers to the sensation and emotions one have towards the objects while the behavioral or actions component consists of actions, tendencies towards the objects. Cartwright (1949) said attitude also has an action structure and term attitude might also cover, therefore, the action component. Greenwald (1986) proposes that every one three aspect of attitude taken together should be most predictive of overt behavior, and subscribes, accordingly, to the three component view.

Among the newer supporters of the three component model, we’ve got Baron and Bryne (1977), and Hilgard (1980). Importance of Attitude With global scientific and technological growth occurring rapidly, declining student interest in science courses and careers  could be a worldwide  international scale. Since students attitudes towards science effect course and career choices, measuring the impact of reform effort on student attitudes important and can require measurement tools with robust psychometric.

Foremost important concepts

One of the foremost important concepts that affected within the affective domain  attitude (Ekici & Hevedanli, 2010). So, it’s important to live the attitude of the scholars toward different subjects and particularly towards the science subjects. If students have a negative attitude towards science subjects then they’re going to not study science subjects in educational activity courses and also won’t opt science related profession in future. this may ultimately affect the progress of country.

So it’s very necessary to live the attitude of the scholars towards different science subjects. On findings the attitudes we are able to try and improve their attitudes. Ekici & Hevedanli (2010) said that the attitude is analyzed within the concept of the affective domain, so if attitudes are positive, students may be happy and successful while they’re studying within the biology courses. Generally, a negative attitude to a subject matter results in lack of interest, and when subjects selected, as in middle school school, to avoiding the topic or course.

This is a reason why major science education reform efforts have emphasized the development of students’ attitude. as an example, project 2061, a multiple-year project in science education, suggest that “science education should contribute to the event in children of positive attitudes towards learning science”( American Association for the advancement of science, 1990, p. 184) So there has been extensive research to grasp, and improve the students’ attitude towards science. But there haven’t been such an intensive research to live students’ attitude particularly towards biology.

Propkop, Tuncer, and Chuda

As Propkop, Tuncer, and Chuda (2007) said: Students’ attitudes towards science significantly alter their achievement in science. Therefore, identification and influence of attitudes became to be a necessary a part of the tutorial research. To overlook the study of students’ attitude towards particular disciplines like biology and chemistry can partly camouflage students’ attitudes because science  not viewed as homogeneous subject (Spall et al., 2003). After realizing this aspect, recently there  many studies that investigated the attitudes of students’ towards a selected science discipline liike physics, chemistry or biology (Nasr & Soltani, 2011).

That’s why, now the importance of studying students, beliefs specifically disciplines of science has been realized. And it’s now extensively been research. Factors Affecting Attitude In this research study various factors affecting students’ attitude towards biology  studied i.e., age and gender. This research study focuses on attitudes and beliefs of students’ towards biology. Gender Gardener (1975) stated that sex  perhaps the foremost important variable associated with pupils’ attitudes to science.

Many studies (e.g..Menis, 1983; Sjoberg. 2000) have reported that males have more positive attitudes to biology than females, while others found no statically significant gender differences (selim & shrigley, 1983). Kahle and Meece (1994) published a good ranging on gender issues associated with students’ attitudes to science subjects.

Differences in attitudes to science students

Gardener (1974), during a review of gender differences in attitudes to science students. Stated that there have been clear differences within the nature of ‘boys’ and ‘girls’.  Scientific interest, boys expressing relatively greater interest in physical sciences activities, while girls more inquisitive about biological and scientific discipline topics.

More recently, Osborne et al. (2003) showed that there  still a bias against physics held by girls. Suggesting that at a personal level the overwhelming majority of women still choose to not do physical sciences.  Their comprehensive literature survey shows that one among the most motivators of gender related research. In education is that the face that there are few girls in technical. The USA department of Education (1997) reported that. While male and feminine of seventh and tenth graders had similar positive attitudes towards science. High school seniors demonstrated greater differences in these attitudes.

Ironically, young women begin to lose interest in science. Even after they perform further or perhaps better during this subject as their classmate. AGE it reported extensively within the literature. That the students’ early positive attitude to science subjects changes markedly within the upper graders. Especially in chemistry and biology (Graber, 1993). Israel took part within the ‘second international science study’(SISS). During this study, 82% of the ten-years old of the 14 years old students’ said that a science  interesting .

Matriculation Examination

Among the 17 years old students who elected to check science for his or her matriculation examination. 72% found the study of biology interesting. While only 48% found the study of physics interesting (Tamir, Levine, Lewy, Chen, & Zuzovsky, 1998). Shemesh (1990) found that Israeli juniors’ girls’ high school cared-for be more curious about languages, social studies, and humanities. While boys curious about science and technology.

Furthermore, boys’ interest in science and technology increased with age while older girls became less interested. Attitude towards biology One of the foremost important aims. Science education is to produce developments in affective domain for college students. Learning within the affective domain includes changing of individuals’ values’ beliefs and attitudes. Because it  thought, science includes physics, chemistry and biology. When the related literature  analyzed. It seen that studies  divided into physics, chemistry and biology through studies. Which in serious trouble the attitude towards science generally.